Leadership types and roles must match the organization
by David Hofferberth and Jeanne Urich, SPI Research
Great service leaders must wear five hats simultaneously. They manage and inspire the human side of the business — developing a vision, walking the talk and building a great team. They’re constantly on the lookout to find ways to improve execution by streamlining the business while searching for new avenues for growth. They have an innate sense of what tomorrow’s business should be, and steer their organization into a position to prosper even more in the future.
Being a leader in any industry is both exciting and challenging, but in professional services (PS), walking the line between leading and doing is especially difficult. PS leaders must play a number of roles, which include:
- Strategist: Defining the vision, mission and associated strategies to reach the firm’s objectives.
- Salesperson extraordinaire: Meeting and developing close relationships with the most critical clients and prospects.
- Industrial engineer: Understanding and codifying business processes to streamline and improve service execution.
- Cheerleader: Motivating the workforce to improve quality, cost and client satisfaction in both good and bad times.
- Financial guru: Managing the organization’s profit and loss and cash flow to reach desired financial objectives.
The bottom line is that it’s not easy being chief cook and bottle washer. In professional services, executives must contend with an entirely people-based business, and therefore, client concerns associated with quality do not come down to a poor manufacturing process or defective materials. Instead, they fall on inadequate skills and processes associated with client development and project delivery or both. PS leadership is a constant balancing act between marketing and selling new business while striving to deliver quality engagements.
Overall leadership objectives
Regardless of which hat the PS leader wears, he or she must meet several overarching objectives to drive the organization forward. The leader must:
- Set the vision and strategy and develop the service organization’s mission and charter by effectively teaming with the cross-functional leadership team.
- Develop a service strategy to capitalize on chosen markets and customer segments.
- Ensure goals and measurements align with and support the strategy.
- Foster new ideas and methods in response to changing requirements.
- Ensure effective bi-directional communication to maximize collaboration.
- Improve visibility and overall efficiency and effectiveness on a frequent basis.
In the dynamic PS market, standing still means falling behind. There’s never time to rest because PS organizations must account for every hour, and non-billable hours are forever lost unless they were invested in building future capabilities. PS organizations are constantly in motion, delighting clients while simultaneously looking for new ones. Change is constant as new technologies, client business problems and execution challenges never take a holiday.
Based on SPI’s in-depth research of over 600 billable professional service organizations, fostering a consulting culture built on both the desire to solve client problems and establish business value for doing so requires a unique leadership skill set. Tipping the balance too far in the direction toward aggressive business development at the expense of clients and staff or too far in the direction of delivery excellence without a profit motive are extremes to avoid.
What type of leader are you?
Based on our research and experience, we believe PS leadership competencies must change and advance as the organization grows and matures. We have identified four major leadership profile categories based on the size of the organization and its focus. These profiles concentrate on the content of the job (competency required) as opposed to the leader’s personality style. As organizations grow, the complexity of the leadership position increases. Furthermore, the role shifts from doing to managing to leading and ultimately to inspiring.
To be effective, a leader’s competencies must match the organization’s requirements and maturity level. For example, entrepreneurs successfully juggle many different problems but may be averse to consistency, operational controls and measurements. They enjoy the chaos, flexibility and heroic nature of startup environments. They’re not afraid to roll up their sleeves and jump into the fire, but their aversion to authority and standards isn’t a good match for larger, more-established organizations.
As with personality profiles, leadership competency profiles are not right or wrong. They accentuate characteristics that must be present to be successful in the current role while envisioning and growing both personal and organizational skills for the firm of the future.
Generally, PS leaders fit in one of four main types of leadership profiles:
The Entrepreneur. This type of leader generally does well in start-up environments. Entrepreneurs are doers, meaning they have their hands in all parts of the organization, from the development of tools, technologies and business processes to the management of clients and finances.
They tend to have stronger technical skills than business or leadership skills. Because they must convince potential employees and clients to join in, recruitment and ramping up are important to them. Growth and early client references are top priorities.
The General Manager. This leadership profile best suits larger organizations where they replace chaos and “anything goes” with planning and building efficient operating processes and guidelines. Because a growing organization requires a general management skill set, leaders need to develop strong financial and operational skills. At this stage, the organization may potentially expand both globally and by line of business. Thus, the PS leader must understand and institute new organizational models and global structures to ensure consistency, quality and efficiency.
The general manager must be able to delegate plus recruit and develop strong geographic and functional leaders. At this phase, it’s critical for leaders to invest in business and strategic planning to help the organization focus on the most promising markets for growth. Large organizations require this leader to be an effective communicator and planner as well as take an active role with premier clients.
The Specialist. Specialists focus on a market niche or specialize by technology or vertical market. Vertical-market or business-process experts typically lead highly specialized boutique firms. The specialists at these firms possess unique knowledge and skills, and differentiate themselves by hiring elite subject matter experts.
Often, many consider the firm’s leader an industry guru who can attract like-minded specialists to concentrate exclusively on the uncommon problems the firm specializes in. These firms and their leaders often excel in domain knowledge and market thought leadership along with the development of exceptional intellectual property.
The downside of specialists is that they may have poor business and operations skills. They may not be able to scale the organization or diversify into new markets. When the visionary leader leaves, the firm may be in trouble because it has not developed broader horizontal skills and competencies.
The Strategist. As the organization grows to a point where it’s big, global and has established a strong brand, it needs a strategic leadership style to continue to build the brand and assure clients and prospects that they have made the right decision in selecting the firm to help them make “bet your business” decisions.
Even though at every stage of growth, the leader should lead, inspire and communicate, as the organization grows both in strategic and geographic impact, effective internal and external communication becomes mandatory. Strategic leaders create effective leadership teams, prioritize and sequence improvement initiatives carefully, redesign organizational structures to make good execution easier and most importantly, integrate all these tactics into one coherent strategy.
Leaders are multi-dimensional
Great leaders have distinctive qualities regardless of the type, size and maturity of the organization they run. Intelligence and the ability to create and communicate a vision, mission and strategy make up an incredibly important part of the job. Leaders must have a unique blend of capabilities, seemingly divergent, that on the whole inspire confidence. For instance, they must have strong people skills to listen to and empathize with employees and clients, yet they must be decisive and hard-nosed when they need to take action.
Successful PS leaders don’t need to have superior skills in every dimension, but must be clear, deliberate, fair and consistent. They must ensure the organization aligns with the overall strategy and direction of the company. Then, they develop goals and measurements to support that vision and constantly monitor, measure and improve every facet of the operation.
Great services leaders must be multi-dimensional. They drive strategy and execution at the same time, but they can’t do it alone. Leaders are only as good as their teams, so their focus is always on team improvement and enrichment. They convey their message to their top performers and hold those persons accountable. They rely on good practices and measurements to improve and document their performance, and to allow them to concentrate on the problems and issues only they can solve.